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FREE ENGLISH ENCYCLOPEDIA BY WIKI PEDIA – Online dictionary and encyclopedia with pictures, facts, and videos. Get information and homework help with millions of articles in our FREE, ... most venerable English-language encyclopedia in the world, ...


ABSCESS - a local infection. A Severe decay, periodontal disease, or trauma are causative factors. It is characterized by swelling and pain. If an abscess ruptures, it will be accompanied by sudden relief from pain due to a reduction in ssure. A foul taste may also be noticed. ABUTMENT - a term used to denote the teeth on either side of a missing tooth. ACRYLIC RESIN - the plastic widely used in dentistry to make dentures. ACTIVE ERUPTION - the emergence of the tooth from its position in the jaw.


The Free Medical Dictionary Software project welcomes you and invites you to download our (freeware) medical dictionary software available online. We hope you find the software and content useful and accurate. We are always open to suggestions on how to improve the software and appreciate any comments you may have What can you expect from the Free Medical Dictionary Software:
Information and definitions covering almost all specialties and fields of medicine:
medical terminology
pharmaceutical drugs
healthcare equipment
health conditions
medical devices
medical abbreviations
and more...
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The download is only 378Kb small! Therefore, even if you are on a dial-up connection it should only take you 1 minute to download the entire installation software. If you have DSL, Cable Internet or any other form of broadband you can download the software in seconds!
The free medical dictionary software installs very simply with only a couple of clicks.
If for some crazy reason you decide to uninstall you'll be happy to know that it is easy and automated.
Updates are free and continuous
The software automaticly notifies you when updates are available, so that you can stay current.
and of course... updates are free also!
NO SPYWARE Requirements for using the Free Medical Dictionary Software:
Windows 95 or newer PC
Internet Explorer 4.0 or newer
An Internet connection So what are you waiting for...

The Encyclopedia of Bioscience

BioScience is the flagship publication of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS). It is a peer-reviewed, heavily cited, monthly science journal with content written and edited for accessibility to researchers, educators, and students alike. Since 1964, BioScience has published timely and authoritative overviews of current research in biology, accompanied by essays and discussion sections on education, public policy, history, and the conceptual underpinnings of the biological sciences. Coverage focuses on organisms from molecules to the environment.

King's Biochemistry

good book of biochemistry its based on good practicians .......
It will give u good knowledge for exams


NetBiochem James Baggott and Sharon E. Dennis

MIT Biology Hypertextbook

Supervised by Prof. Vernon Ingram, Wilson Professor of Biology & Director emeritus, Experimental Study Group
Funded by:
the Howard Hughes Medical Institute;
Dean Robert Silbey, School of Science, and
Prof. Chris Kaiser, Head, Department of Biology

Indiana State University Biochemistry

resources in biophysics Biophysics is a diverse and eclectic field, and consequently difficult to categorize. For the purposes of this summary of educational resources in biophysics, biophysics is divided into three parts or topic areas: molecular structures, biophysical techniques, and biological mechanisms. Each topic area is defined here and an attempt is made to indicate how these areas are interrelated within the field of biophysics. An annotated list of specific resources, available as text files or web sites, for each topic area is then provided on subsequent pages

Biophysics Textbook online

resources in biophysics Biophysics is a diverse and eclectic field, and consequently difficult to categorize. For the purposes of this summary of educational resources in biophysics, biophysics is divided into three parts or topic areas: molecular structures, biophysical techniques, and biological mechanisms. Each topic area is defined here and an attempt is made to indicate how these areas are interrelated within the field of biophysics. An annotated list of specific resources, available as text files or web sites, for each topic area is then provided on subsequent pages


Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules.
Although there are a vast number of different biomolecules many are complex and large molecules (called polymers) that are composed of similar repeating subunits (called monomers). Each class of polymeric biomolecule has a different set of subunit types.[1] For example, a protein is a polymer whose subunits are selected from a set of 20 or more amino acids. Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of important biological molecules, like proteins, in particular the chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

Web Style Guide Basic Design Principles for Creating Web Sites, 2nd Edition (Lynch and Horton), copy;2002

Review"At last, a book on the design of Web sites with the viewer in mind." -- Donald A. Norman, author of The Design of Everyday Things and The Invisible Computer"Helpful and forward-looking advice." -- Stephen W. Plain, Web Development Editor, A top-10 choice for 1999"The Web would be an easier world to navigate if all Web designers read this book." -- Deborah Lynne Wiley, Online

How to Build a Successful Website

Due to the many news stories in recent years about big corporate websites going bankrupt it is a common misconception today that all or most websites are unprofitable and will not make their owners money. This assumption is based on the idea that if big corporations like Disney fail at making a website then your average guy on the street must fail horribly, of course that assumption is wrong. In the case of content driven websites the smaller independent operation often has the advantage over large corporate entities. While an individual or a small group does not have the resources of the large corporation, they also do not have the overhead. If you run a website out of your basement or your bedroom your overhead is already significantly smaller than that of a major corporation because you're not running your website out of a brand new state-of-the-art office building. Additionally if you only have one employee, yourself, you're also reducing your overhead compared to corporations who have to pay for workers who do the same things you do, but also management, building management, building security, maintenance, marketing consultants, development consultants, secretaries, and a myriad of other positions that by keeping your operation small you don't need. The only advantage a corporation has over an individual is that they can afford to pay for gross amounts of advertising both online and off, whereas the typical individual cannot.

Web Site Design Tutorial

I’ve put together this collection of tips for designing what I would consider a good site, one that will make your visitors take you seriously. I’m sure others may disagree in what they would consider a good site. You may choose to agree or disagree with anything in this guide – there are no rules for good design.

Introduction to Chaos


The theories of chaos and nonlinear dynamics are applied to many fields such as sociology, economics, and biology.The one of the most active field is the brain science.

Introduction to Statics and Dynamics

Dynamical Systems

The dynamical system concept is a mathematical formalization for any fixed "rule" which describes the time dependence of a point's position in its ambient space. Examples include the mathematical models that describe the swinging of a clock pendulum, the flow of water in a pipe, and the number of fish each spring in a lake.



Individual ChaptersThe following list of chapters links you to individual chapters, so that if you wish to print, you print just that one chapter, not the whole book.

Cytology II
Connective Tissues
Bone Formation
Nervous Elements
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Eye and its Adnexa
Auditory and Vestibular Organs
Circulatory System
Defence and Immunity

Histology Full Text

How this book comes to be on the Web, and the thinking behind it are in the 'Preface', at the end.. Here, it should be said that this is a potential aid to thought and confidence in what matters - working with the microscope, or its reproduced images: looking, thinking, looking again, relating the detail and its implications to the patient. (If it makes some things clear, it might also help with exams.)

Histology Laboratory Assistant

Internet Atlas of Histology, COM UIUC

Welcome to the Internet Atlas of Histology. Please explore the complete set of histological specimens that features many excellent plastic sections prepared by Aulikki Kokko-Cunningham, M.D. Over 1000 labeled histological features are labled and have accompanying functional descriptions. All of this information is accessible though an alphabetical index and a search engine.

The Human Brain 5e (Nolte)

The human brain is the center of the human nervous system and is a highly complex organ. It has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over five times as large as the "average brain" of a mammal with the same body size.[citation needed] Most of the expansion comes from the cerebral cortex, a convoluted layer of neural tissue that covers the surface of the forebrain. Especially expanded are the frontal lobes, which are involved in executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. The portion of the brain devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in humans.

Neuroanatomy 2e, 2nd Edition

NEUROANATOMY is an open access journal. The term " OPEN ACCESS " gives the right of readers to " read, download, distribute, copy, print, search, or link" to the full texts of the articles free of charge.Your personal information remains confidential and is not sold, leased, or given to any third party be they reliable or not. The information contained in is not a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances. Advertisement is not accepted. This website is a personally funded and has no external sources of funds

Fission and Fusion(pdf notes)

Another major form of energy is nuclear energy, the energy that is trapped inside each atom. One of the laws of the universe is that matter and energy can't be created nor destroyed. But they can be changed in form.

The Visible Embryo

The Visible Embryo

New details of the composition and structure of a needlelike protein complex on the surface of certain bacteria may help scientists develop new strategies to thwart infection. The research, conducted in part at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be published April 26, 2009, in the advance online edition of Nature Structural & Molecular Biology.

Cardiac Embryology

Cardiac Embryology
Detailed description of the formation of the interatrial septum, including formation of septum primum, septum secundum, and foramen ovale. (approx. 8 minutes) Requires QuickTime plugin

Embryology of the CNS

Embryology of the CNS

In Drosophila, the proneural genes of the achaete-scute complex encode transcriptional activators that can commit cells to a neural fate. We have isolated cDNAs for two Xenopus achaete-scute homologs, ASH3a and ASH3b, which are expressed in a subset of central nervous system (CNS) neuroblasts during early neurogenesis. After expressing either ASH3 protein in developing Xenopus embryos, we find enlargement of the CNS at the expense of adjacent non-neural ectoderm. Analysis of molecular markers for neural, epidermal, and neural crest cells indicates that CNS expansion occurs as early as neural plate formation. ASH3-dependent CNS enlargement appears to require neural induction, as it does not occur in animal cap explants. Inhibition of DNA synthesis shows that additional CNS tissue does not depend on cell division--rather it reflects conversion of prospective neural crest and epidermal cells to a neural fate. The differentiation of the early forming primary neurons also seems to be prevented by ASH3 expression. This may be secondary to the observed activation of Xotch transcription by ASH3.

Advances in Dental Research

Advances in dental research, by gum! A significant amount of adult gum disease gum disease Dentistry Gingival disease, often in the form of gingivitis and bone loss 2º to toxins produced by bacteria in plaque accumulating along the gum line Clinical Early–painless bleeding; pain appears with advanced GD as bone loss around the may be inherited, according toaccording toprep.1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.2. In keeping with: according to instructions.3. ..... Click the link for more information. scientists from the University of Minnesota(body, education) University of Minnesota - The home of Gopher. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. ..... Click the link for more information. School of Dentistry Noun 1. school of dentistry - a graduate school offering study leading to degrees in dentistrydental schoolgrad school, graduate school - a school in a university offering study leading to degrees beyond the bachelor's degree in Minneapolis. Preliminary results from a study of 30 pairs of fraternal and identical twins identical twinspl.n.Twins derived from the same fertilized ovum that at an early stage of development becomes separated into independently growing cell aggregations, giving rise to two individuals of the same sex, identical genetic makeup, and suggest that genetics may account for 50 to 75 percent of chronic adult gum disease. The researchers will continue to gather data from twins reared together and reared apart to learn how genetics and the environment contribute to gum disease. They presented their study, which was done in cooperation with the university's Minnesota Center for Twin and Adoption Research, on March 12 in Montreal at the annual meeting of the International Association for Dental ResearchThe International Association for Dental Research(IADR) is a professional association that focuses on research in the field of dentistry. The aim of this association by constitution is to promote research in all fields of oral and related sciences, to encourage improvements in methods for ..... Click the link for more information.. A new method for detecting gum disease was also described at the Montreal meeting. Successful clinical trials of a temperature probe that rapidly detects gum disease were reported by scientists from the Forsyth Dental Center of Boston and ABIOMED, Inc., of Danvers, Mass. The device is a microprocessor-based probe with a disposable tip that measures gum temperature, correlating minute temperature differences with the presence of gum diseases. The researchers predict that the device will enable dentists to detect gum disease before extensive gum damage occurs. The machine also monitored the decrease in gum disease following antibiotic treatment. It will be tested further before being marketed

Community Dental Health
The journal is concerned with dental public health and related subjects. Dental public health is the science and the art of preventing oral disease, promoting oral health, and improving the quality of life through the organised efforts of society.
The discipline covers a wide range and includes such topics as:
oral epidemiology,
oral health services research,
preventive dentistry - especially in relation to communities,
oral health education and promotion,
clinical research - with particular emphasis on the care of special groups,
behavioural sciences related to dentistry,
decision theory,
quality of life
risk analysis
ethics and oral health economics
quality assessment

Oral Pathology Image Database
Gud atlas

Modern Relativity
This Unit focuses on special relativity only. Special relativity is a special case of a more general physics. We use only Cartesian coordinate systems. In special relativity we do not consider gravitation, and it is also not a quantum theory. Thus many of the implications of special relativity that are often quoted as if they were general laws do not hold true in more general physics scenarios. Once special relativity is understood, one may move on to a more general case of physics known as general relativity For those that are ready for this step we have created a section on general relativity

Oral Pathology
Oral pathology is the specialty of dentistry and pathology which deals with the nature, identification, and management of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. It is a science that investigates the causes, processes and effects of these diseases. The practice of oral pathology includes research, diagnosis of diseases using clinical, radiographic, microscopic, biochemical or other examinations, and management of patients. In the United States oral pathology is one of nine specialties officially recognized by the American Dental Association and the federal government, and because of this it has its own national certifying board, the American Board of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. Oral pathologists operate biopsy services for dental and medical professionals, and many also operate clinical diagnosis and management clinics (clinical oral pathology) as well as radiograph consultation services. Several national organizations of oral pathologists exist. In the U.S. the main national association is the American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, and the above definition is that of the AAOMP and has also been adopted by the American Dental Association.

Dental and Oral Disorders
Dental and oral disorders are only rarely life-threatening, but they can greatly reduce quality of life for the elderly. Poor oral hygiene and inadequate dental care are important contributing factors. Many dental and oral disorders are sequelae of systemic disorders or their treatment (eg, drugs [see Table 104-1], radiation therapy, chemotherapy). Oral and salivary gland cancers are the most serious of these disorders and should be included in the differential diagnosis of many oral lesions; however, most lesions are benign.

The notes will be published by Princeton University Press in 2010. The notes will remain freely available online after the book is published. One goal of this project is to reduce the cost of textbooks and to make the material as readily available as possible.
We suggest that you do not print a chapter until you actually need it, because we will update the chapters during the semester. Frequent updates of Chapters 5-9 will be posted until about June 1, 2009. Further down the pipeline are new chapters on Dynamics and Statistical Physics.
Please send us your comments and suggestions for improving the text.
Many of the problems in Chapters 1 and 3-9 make use of simulations.
The pdf files are hyperlinked, although not all the links work with all operating systems and software used to read the pdf files.
All the material at this site will eventually be moved to , an educational resource collection. Copies of previous versions of the chapters are available.
Table of Contents. Updated 9 March 2009.
Chapter 1, "From Classical Mechanics to Statistical Mechanics," pages 1-30. Updated 12 April 2009.
Chapter 2, "Thermodynamic Concepts and Processes," pages 31-103. Updated 14 April 2009.
Chapter 3, "Concepts of Probability," pages 104-169. Updated 13 April 2009.
Chapter 4, "The Methodology of Statistical Mechanics," pages 170-226. Updated 1 April 2009.
Chapter 5, "Magnetic Systems," pages 227-290. Updated 22 April 2009.
Chapter 6, "Noninteracting Particle Systems," pages 291-353. Updated 13 April 2009.
Chapter 7, "The Chemical Potential and Phase Equilibria," pages 354-384. Updated 13 April 2009.
The following chapters are more advanced.
Chapter 8, "Theories of Gases and Liquids," pages 385-431. Updated 22 April 2009.
Chapter 9, "Critical Phenomena and the Renormalization Group," pages 432-464. Updated 23 April 2009.
New chapters are planned on non-thermal statistical processes and time-dependent phenomena.
Appendix, pages 462-470. Updated 8 January 2009.
Problem Listing. Updated 24 February 2009.
Index. Updated 2 February 2009. The index is still incomplete.
Introduction to Many-Body Perturbation Theory, 10 pages. Updated 2 January 2006. It is unlikely that this chapter will be included in the published text.

Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics An intermediate level course
A complete set of lecture notes for an upper-division thermodynamics and statistical mechanics course. Topics covered include elementary probability theory, classical thermodynamics, the thermodynamics of the atmosphere, heat engines, specific heat capacities of gases and solids, the Maxwell velocity distribution, paramagnetism, black-body radiation and the Stephan-Bolzmann law, conduction electrons in metals, and degeneracy pressure in white-dwarfs and neutron stars.

Bailey’s Surgical Textbook


Kellys Textbook of Medicine

Kelley's Textbook of Internal MedicineSource: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW)Author(s): H. David Humes MD
4th ed.
1902Recommended by: Brandon/Hill Medical Selection Doody's Core Titles in the Health Sciences Doody's Star Rating®:(95) (4th ed.) View Doody's review of this title
The new edition of this reorganized text emphasizes practicality and includes expeditious features that enable both students and practitioners to find authoritative answers fast. With Approach to Patients chapters that focus on evaluation and work-up, complete descriptions of disease-specific entities with highlighted Indications for Referrals and Indications for Hospitalization, and a rapid-access guide summarizing key facts, this authoritative textbook has been streamlined and referenced for quick access to information.


Oxford Textbook of Critical Care

Oxford Textbook series
A comprehensive multi-disciplinary text covering all aspects of intensive care; International contributors; a unique problem-orientated approach to understanding the complex physiological disturbances seen in intensive care medicine.


Clinical Pediatrics Full

Clinical Pediatrics is a practice-oriented journal emphasizing outpatient pediatric care. We solicit and encourage submission of manuscripts of value to the practitioner in all areas of child care including pediatric practice, clinical research, behavioral and educational management, community health issues, medical education, and subspecialty or affiliated specialty applications to pediatric practice.

ADSL Bandwidth Management HOWTO

by Dan Singletary
English, published in 2003
5,809 words (20 pages)

length from the default of 100, which on an ADSL line could take as much as 10 seconds to empty with a 1500 byte mtu.

3D Graphics Modelling and Rendering mini-HOWTO

by Dane Jarvis
, published in 2001
2,161 words (8 pages)

Details download and installation instructions for a graphics rendering and modelling development environment using RedHat Linux.

An Autobiography



The Adventure of Living

a man of straw, call him the Public, and then try to play down to him or up to him and his alleged and purely hypothetical opinions and tastes. Those who attempt to fawn upon the puppet of their own creation are as likely as not to end by interesting nobody. At any rate, try and please yourself, then at least one person's liking is engaged. That is the autobiographer's simple secret.
All the same there is a better reason than that. Pleasure is contagious. He who writes with zest will infect his readers. The man who argues, "This seems stupid and tedious to me, but I expect it is what the public likes," is certain to make shipwreck of his endeavour.
The pivot of my life has been _The Spectator_, and so The Spectator must be the pivot of my book--the point upon which it and I and all that is mine turn. I therefore make no apology for beginning this book with the story of how I came to The Spectator.
My father, a friend of both the joint editors, Mr. Hutton and Mr. Townsend


Abraham Lincoln, a History

While the town of Lawrence was undergoing burning and pillage, Governor Shannon wrote to Colonel Sumner to say that as the marshal and sheriff had finished making their arrests, and he presumed had by that time dismissed the posse, he required a company of United States troops to be stationed at Lawrence to secure "the safety of the citizens in both, person and property," asking also a like company for Lecompton and Topeka. The next day the citizens of Lawrence had the opportunity to smother their indignation when they saw the embers of the Free-State Hotel and the scattered fragments of their printing-presses patrolled and "protected" by the Federal dragoons whose presence they had vainly implored a few days before. It was time the Governor should move. The guerrilla bands with their booty spread over the country, and the free-State men rose in a spirit of fierce retaliation. Assassinations, house-burnings, expulsions, and skirmishes broke out in all quarters. The sudden shower of lawlessness fell

19th Century Actor Autobiographies

I First appearance. A father's advice. How Salvini studied his art. Faults in acting. The desire to excel in everything. A model for Othello. First visit to the United States. In Cuba. Appearance in London. Impressions of Irving's Hamlet. The decline of tragedy. Tragedy in two languages. American critical taste. Impressions of Edwin Booth.
ADELAIDE RISTORI First appearances. Salvini and Rossi. Appears as Lady Macbeth. As manager. First visit to America. Begins to play in English.
[William Winter, the dramatic critic of the New York Tribune, in 1894 wrote the "Life and Art of Joseph Jefferson," published by the Macmillan Company, London and New York. He gives an account of Jefferson's lineage, and then says:
"In Joseph Jefferson, fourth of the line, famous as Rip Van Winkle, and destined to be long remembered by that name in dramatic history, there is an obvious union of the salient qualities of his ancestors.


The Dark Star

Riches, leisure, opportunity to study for a career upon his stage, are mine if I desire."
"Dost thou desire this, little Ilse?"
"And the man Venem who has followed thee so long?"
"I cannot be what he would have me--a Hausfrau--to mend his linen for my board and lodging."
"And the Fatherland which placed me here on outpost?"
"I take thy place when God relieves thee."
"So ist's recht!... Grüs Gott--Ilse----"
* * * * *
Among the German settlers a five-piece brass band had been organised the year before.
It marched at the funeral of Albrecht Dumont, lately head gamekeeper to nobility in the mountains of a long-lost province.
Three months later Ilse Dumont arrived in Chicago to marry Eddie Brandes. One Benjamin Stull was best man. Others present included "Captain" Quint, "Doc" Curfoot, "Parson" Smawley, Abe Gordon--friends of the bridegroom.
Invited by the bride, among others were Theodor Weishelm, th

Clinical Opthamology

Royal Society of Medicine Book Awards–2005 Winner‘It is beautifully laid out and has excellent photographs and drawings – an excellent text for the intended audience.’ American Journal of Ophthalmology (review of fifth edition) ‘It is difficult to fault this excellent book.’ British Journal of Ophthalmology (review of fifth edition)‘Nothing has come close to superseding it in 10 years. If you only ever buy one textbook this is the one.’ Optician (review of fifth edition)


Clinical Nephrology

We are glad that you would like to use the contents of the International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics online. Subscriber may use the full-text internet journal as Acrobat PDF files.


Clinical Gastroenterology

The mission of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology is to provide readers with a broad spectrum of themes in clinical gastroenterology and hepatology, including the diagnostic , endoscopic, interventional, and therapeutic advances in cancer, inflammatory diseases, functional gastrointestinal disorders, nutrition, absorption, and secretion. This peer-reviewed journal


Clinical Endocrinology

Clinical Endocrinology publishes papers and reviews which focus on the clinical aspects of endocrinology, including the clinical application of molecular endocrinology. It features reviews, original papers, commentaries, cases of the month, book reviews and letters to the editor. Clinical Endocrinology is essential reading not only for those engaged in endocrinological research but also for those involved primarily in clinical practice.


Clinical Cardiology

Objectives: The objectives of Clinical Cardiology Alert are to:
present the latest information regarding diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease, including new drug therapies, surgery, and other interventions;
discuss the pros and cons of these interventions, as well as possible complications;
discuss the pros and cons and cost-effectiveness of new and traditional diagnostic tests;
present current data regarding outpatient care of cardiac patients. Target Audience: This activity is intended for the cardiologist.Accreditation:AHC Media LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. AHC Media LLC designates this educational activity for 25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Simply read the issues, answer the self-assessment questions at the end of each issue, compare your answers to the answer key, and review the source material relevant to any missed questions. Complete the evaluation form, which you'll receive at the end of each CME semester, and mail it in. You'll receive your credit letter in the mail.


Snell’s Neuroanatomy

Snell's Neuroanatomy is quite comprehensive - it covers a wide range of topics from the neurobiology of neurons to neurodevelopment.

Review of Physiology-by William Ganong


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