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anatomy and physiology medical ecards

anatomy and physiology

Question Answer Medicine
which radiographic procedure has the ability to make images in multiple planes? MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses radio frequencyradiation as its source of energy -- it affords superior soft tissue contrast, has the ability to image in multiple planes and lacks ionizing radiation hazards
epistaxis can be defined as bleeding from the nose caused by local irritation of mucous membranes, violent sneezing and a variety of reasons
a ganglion is a collection of nerve endings -- knot or knotlike mass; nerve cell bodies collected in groups
the lungs are coveredin a serous membranous sac called the visceral pleura -- each lung is enveloped in a sac of serous membrane called the pleura -- the chest cavity is lined with the parietal pleura -- the lung covering is called the visceral pleura
the passageway for foods and liquids into the digestive system and for air into the respiratory system is the pharynx -- muscular pharynx serves as a passageway for food and liquids into the digestive tract -- path for air into the respiratory system -- throat runs from the nares and runs partway down the neck, where it opens into the esophagus (posterior) and th
the vocal cords are located in the larynx -- vocal cords lie in the upper end of the larynx -- responsible for voice production
the function of the trachea is to conduct air to and from the lungs -- tubular passageway located anterior to the esophagus -- furthur divides into the right and left bronchi
the nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the septum -- nasal cavity is a hollow behind the nose -- divided into right and left portions by the nasal septum -- anterior septum is made of cartilage
the bones of the palm of hte hand are referred to as metacarpals
the muscles important in respiration are intercostal muscles are inserted in the spaces between the ribs -- are particularly important in respiration -- serve to enlarge the thoracic cavity upon inspiration
the thick, fan shaped muscle that lies on the anterior chest is the pectoralis major -- thick, fan-shaped muscle located in the upper chest -- its fibers extend from the center of the thorax through the armpits to the humerus
the triangular muscle of the shoulder that abducts the arm is the deltoid -- thick, triangular muscle that covers the shoulder joint -- it responsible for the roundness of the shoulder
which of the abdominal muscles originates at the pubic bone and ends in the ribs rectus abdominis -- on the anterior portion of the abdominal wall -- forms a straplike mass of muscle -- runs from the pubic bone at the floor of the abdominal cavity straight up to the xiphoid process of the sternum and the lower margins of the rib cage
the gastrocnemius is the chief muscle of the calf of the leg -- gastrocnemius is the chief muscle of the calf of the leg -- large muscle on the posterior part of the leg -- extends the foot and helps to flex the knee upon the thigh
a connective tissue band that holds bones together is called ligament -- band or sheet of strong fibrous tissue connecting the articular ends of bones -- serves to bind them together and facilitate or limit motion -- cord-like structure
the two bones that form the side walls and the roof of the cranium are the parietal bone -- one parietal bone is located on each side of the skull just posterior to the frontal bone -- they form the bulging sides and the roof of the cranium
the sternocleidomastoid muscle is located along the side of the neck -- sometimes referred to as the sternomastoid -- arises from the sternum and the inner part of the clavicle
the medial bone of the forearm, which is located on the small-finger side of the hand ulna -- on the proximal end is the olecranon process which forms the prominence of the elbow
the bones that is shaped like a butterfly and forms the anterior portion of the base of the cranium is the sphenoid bone is a large wedge-shaped bone at the base of the cranium -- bone in the lower part of the skull between the parietal and the temporal bones
the bone that forms the posterior portion of the skull is the occipital bone forms the posterior part and a good portion of the base of the cranium -- bone in the lower part of the skull between the parietal and the temporal bones
the lower jawbone is the mandible is the lower jawbone -- only movable bone in the skull -- horse-shoe shaped
the bone located in the neck between the mandible and the larynx, which supports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles is the hyoid bone -- supports the tongue and provides an attachment for its muscles -- does not articulate with any other bone
the adult vertebral column has 26 bones
how many cervical vertebrae are there 7
the bone in the axial skeleton that does not articulate with any other bone is the hyoid -- supports the tongue providing attachment sites for muscles of the tongue, neck and pharynx
the number of pairs of ribs 12 -- one pair attached to each of the 12 thoracic vertebrae -- each rib articulates posteriorally with its corresponding thoracic vertebrae
a slender, rodlike bone that is located at the base of the neck and runs horizontally is the clavicle are slender, rodlike bones with elongated "s" shapes -- located at the base of the neck and run horizontally between the sternum and the shoulders -- another name is the collarbone
the upper, flaring portion of hipbone is the ilium -- superior border is the iliac crest -- the internal surface is the iliac fossa
a large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes is the foramen magnum -- large hole in the inferior part of the bone (occiptal) through which the medulla oblongata and its membranes, the accessory nerve (XI) and the vertebral and spinal arteries pass
the larger, weight-bearing bone of the lower leg is the tibia -- larger medial bone of the lower leg -- bears the major portion of the weight on the leg
the bone that fits into the acetabulum, forming a joint is the femur -- head of the femur fits into a lateral depression in the os coxae (the acetabulum), forming a joint -- held in place by a ligament and by a tough figrous capsule surrounding the joint
another name for the kneecap is patella -- small, triangular bone anterior to the knee joint -- a lens-shaped sesamoid bone situated in front of the knee in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle
the membranes that line closed cavities within the body are called serous membrane -- are two categories of membranes; epithelial and connective tissue -- epithelial is further divided into the mucous membrane, which lines tubes and other spaces that open to the outside of the body and the serous membrane which lines clo
the longest bone in the body is the femur
a rounded protuberance found at a point of articulation with another bone is condyle -- distal end of the femur as large condyles -- these condyles articulate with the tibia at the knee joint
an infection of the bone is osteomyelitis -- infection of bone cause by bacteria that may reach the bone from outside the body, from other sites of infection and from adjacent structures
the epiphyses are the ends of long bone -- have a somewhat bulbous shape, which provides roomy areas for muscle attachments and gives stability to the joints
oil glandsof the skin are called sebaceous -- several kinds of exocrine glands are associated with the skin -- sebaceous (oil) glands, sudoriferous (sweat) glands, ceruminous glands and mammary glands
the periosteum is the membrane that covers bone -- fibrous vascular membrane covering bones, except at the extremities
a transparent structure that permits the eye to focus rays to form an image on the retina is the lens -- transparent, colorless structure in the eye that is biconvex in shape -- is enclosed in a capsule -- capable of focusing rays so that they form a perfect image on the retina
the purpose of the iris is to regulate the amount of light entering the eye -- pupil is the contractile opening in the center of the eye
the structure that is seen from the outsideas the colored portion of the eye is the iris -- a thin, muscular diaphragm that is seen form the outside as the colored portion of the eye
the nerve that carries visual impulses to the brain is the optic nerve -- carries visual impulses received by the rods and cones in the retina to the brain -- second cranial nerve
the white outer layer of the eyeball is the sclera -- eyeball has three separate coats or tunics -- outermost layer is called the sclera and is made of firm, tough connective tissue -- known as the white of the eye
a jelly-like substance in the eye's posterior cavity is called vitreous humor -- aqueous humor is watery, transparent fluid found in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye -- helps maintain the eye's conical shape and assists in focusing light rays -- the posterior cavity lies between the lens and the retina
the structure that connects the middle ear and the throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely is the eustachian tube -- normally the air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum is equalized by means of the eustachian tube -- connects the middle ear cavity and the throat this allows the eardrum to vibrate freely with the incoming sound waves
the conjunctiva is the covering of the anterior globe except the cornea -- conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the anterior surface of the globe, except for the cornea -- it is reflected onto the eyeball
the number of pairs of spinal nerves is 31 -- each nerve is attached to the spinal cord by two roots, the dorsal root and the ventral root -- by pairs there are eight cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral and one cocygeal
the grea sensory nerve of the face and head is the trigeminal -- great sensory nerve of the face and head -- has three branches that carry general sense impulses -- the third branch is joined by motor fibers to the muscles of chewing (mastication)
the cranial nerve that contains special sense fibers for hearing as well as for balance is VIII -- acoustic nerve contains special sense fibers for hearing as well as balance from the semicircular canal ofthe internal ear -- also called the vestibulocochlear
the part of the brain responible for maintenance of balance and muscle tone, as well as coordination of voluntary muscle is the cerebellum aids in coordinating the voluntary muscles, helps maintain balance in standing, walking and sitting and aids in maintaining muscle tone
the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes are divisions of the cerebrum -- the lobes of the cerebral hemispheres are named after the skull bones that they underlie -- they are the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes
the area of the brain that controls the respiratory center is the medulla oblongata -- within the medulla are three vital reflex centers of the reticular system -- cardiac center regulates heartbeat, the respiratory center adjusts the rate and depth of breathing and the vasoconstrictor center regulates the diameter of t
the largest part of the brain is the cerebrum -- largest part of the brain is the cerebrum, which is divided into the two cerebral hemispheres (a right and left side) -- is supported by the brain stem
the outermost covering of the brain and the spinal cord is the dura mater -- the meninges are three layers of connective tissue that surround the brain and the spinal cord to form a complete enclosure -- outermost layer of these membranes is called the dura matter -- second layer around the brain and spinal cord is t
cerebrospinal fluid circulates freely in the subarachnoid space -- between the arachnoid and the pia mater -- this is where the cerebral fluid circulates
the brain contains four fluid-filled spaces called the ventricles -- within the brain are four fluid-filled spaces called the ventricles -- cavities that communicate with each other, with the central canal of the spinal cord and with the subarachnoid space
which structure transmits sound vibrations to the inner ear tympanic membrane (eardrum) transmits sound vibrations to the internal ear by means of the auditory ossicles
winding, cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is the cochlea looks like a small spiral-shaped shell -- is a tube coiled for about two and a half turns into a spiral, around a central axis of the bone
this is not a auditory ossicle cochlea -- expanding across the middle ear area are three exceedingly small bones called the auditory ossicles; the malleus, the incus and the stapes
cross matching of blood determines suitability of donor by mixing donor RBC's with recipient serum -- in cross-match of blood, the donor RBC's are mixed with the recipients serum if agglutination does not occur, the recipients does not have antibodies that will attack the donor
highly specialized blood cell whose function is oxygen transportation red blood cell contain oxygen carrying protein hemoglobin -- are called RBC's or erythrocytes
differential count provides an estimate of the percentage of each type of white cell -- the differential white count (an estimate of the percentage of each type of white cell) is done using a stained blood slide. some blood diseases and inflammatory conditions can be recognized this way
mixing of incompatible bloods may result in agglutination -- incompatibility of blood transfusions may be attributable to either the plasma or red cells of the donor's blood. The red cells of the donor's blood may become clumped or held together in bunches. This process is called agglutination
platelets are essential for coagulation of blood -- platelets are formed by the red bone marrow and are essential for the coagulation of blood and in maintenance of hemostasis
in the normal adult, the average number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter of circulating blood is 5000-10,000 -- a normal adult has an average of 5000 to 10,000 leukocytes per cubic millimeter of circulating blood or about 1 leukocyte to 700 erythrocytes. A high white blood count is indicative of infection
a large superficial vein in the lower extremity, which begins in the foot and extends up the medial side of the leg, the knee and the thigh is called the greater saphenous vein -- saphenous is the longest vein in the body -- the greater saphenous vein, which is superficial, extends up the medial side of the leg, the knee and the thigh -- at the groin, it empties into the femoral vein
the artery at the back of the is the popliteal -- the external iliac artery changes to the femoral in the thigh. This vessel branches off in the thigh and then becomes the popliteal artery at the back of the knee joint. It subdivides below the knee. The popliteal vein is also behind the knee
the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries supply the intestines -- the superior mesenteric artery, which is the largest branch on the abdominal aorta, carries blood to most of the small intestine as well as to the first half of the large intestine. The much smaller inferior mesenteric artery, which is locat
the veins of the head and neck are drained by the jugular veins -- blood from the face, scapl and superficial regions of the neck is drained by the internal and external jugular vein. The internal jugulars flow into the superior vena cava. The external jugulars flow into the subclavian veins.
which arteries supply the heart coronary -- blood is supplied to the heart by the right and left coronary arteries. Branches of these two arteries encircle the heart and supply all the parts of the myocardium. Branches lead to the atrial and ventricular myocardium.
the atrioventricular (A-V) node causes ventricular contraction -- Impulses that start at the sinoatrial node spread through the atrial muscle fibers, producing atrial contractions. When the impulses reach the A-V node they are relayed to the ventricles via the bundle of His and the Purkinje fi
why would an aspirated foreign body be more likely to enter the right bronchus rather than the left bronchus? the right bronchus is more vertical, shorter and wider than the left -- as a result, foreign objects in the air passageways are more likely to enter it than the left and frequently lodge in it
the spleen filters blood -- the spleen is an organ containing lymphoid tissue designed to filter blood. It is frequently damaged in abdominal trauma, causing it to rupture. This causes severe hemorrhage, which requires prompt splenectomy
Which artery supplies the head and neck carotid -- the left and right carotid arteries supply the head and neck. The external carotid supplies the right side of the thyroid, tongue, throat, face, ear, scapl and the dura mater
the circle of Willis is located at the base of the brain -- the posterior cerebral arteries help to form an arterial circle at the base of the brain called the circle of Willis, which creates a connection between the vertebral artery and internal carotid artery systems. It equalizes blo
the branch of the external iliac artery that is located in the thigh is called the femoral artery -- the external iliac arteries continue into the thigh, where the name of these tubes is changed to femoral. Both femorals go to the genitals and abdominal wall. Other branches run to the thigh and become the popliteal (back of the knee)
the descending aorta terminates at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra, dividing into two common iliac arteries -- the descending aorta travels through the thorax, branching off to supply the thoracic organs and structure. It then passes through the diaphragm into the abdomen, supplying the abdominal organs via numerous branches. It termin
the contractions of the heart are synchronized and regulated by the pacemaker of the heart, called the sinoatrial node -- contractions of the heart are synchronized and their rate is controlled by specially modified muscular tissue. The sinoatrial node, the pacemaker is found in the right atrial wall near the opening of the superior vena cava
tiny blood vessels that permeate and nourish tissue are called capillaries -- the arterioles lead into a vast network of very fine blood vessels, the capillaries. These are the blood vessels that permeate the tissues and service the body cells directly. They play a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries to c
the wall of partition dividing the heart into right and left sides is called the septum -- the human heart is a double pump. The two sides are completely separated from each other by a partition called the septum
the heart valve that closes at the time the right ventricle begins pumping, preventing blood from returing to the right atrium in the tricuspid value (right atrioventricular) closes at the time the right ventricle begins pumping in order to prevent blood from going back into the right atrium. It has three flaps or cusps and is between the right atrium and the right ventricle
the inner lining of the heart, composed of smooth, delicate membrane is called the endocardium -- which lines the inner surface of the heart cavity -- is a thin, delicate membrane composed of endothelial cells. It covers the values, surrounds the chordae tendineae, and is continuous with the lining membrane of the large blood vessels
the spleen is located in the left hypochondriac region -- normally protected by the rib cage. It is between fundus of the stomcah and the diaphragm
the serous membrane that covers the heart is the pericardium forms the outermost layer of the heart wall. It also lines the pericardial sac. It is a loose-fitting membrane. Pericarditis is an inflammation of the lining
which is not a part of the lymphatic system thyroid -- lymph, lymph vessels, lymphnodes, tonsils, the thymus and the spleen make up the lymphatic system. Its function is to drain protein-containing fluid that escapes from the blood capillaries from the tissue spaces. It also transports fats from th
the s-shaped bend in the lower colon is called the sigmoid -- the s-shaped bend where the colon crosses the brim of the pelvis and enters the pelvic cavity (where it becomes the rectum) is the sigmoid colon. It begins at the left iliac crest, projects toward the midline and terminates at the rectum
the reabsorption of water and electrolytes is the main function of the large intestine has little or no digestive function -- serves to absorb water and electrolytes -- forms and stores feces until defecation occurs
the terminal portion of the large intestine is the anal canal -- narrow, distal part of the large intestine -- the rectum is the last 8 inches of the gastrointestinal tract -- terminal 2 inches is the anal canal
which structure lies retroperitoneally kidney -- some organs lie on the posterior abdominal wall and are covered by peritoneum on the anterior surface only -- such organs, including the kidney and pancreas are said to be retroperitoneal
the first portion of the large intestine is the cecum -- beginning (proximal) portion of the large intestine -- hangs below the ileocecal valve -- blind pouch 2.5 inches long
the appendix is attached to the cecum -- to the cecum is attached a small blind tube known as the appendix -- twisted, coiled tube 3 inches in lenght
the primary function of the gallbladder is storage of bile -- gallbladder stores bile between meals and releases it when stimulated by gastric juice, fatty foods and the hormone cholecystokinin -- bile is produced in the liver
when the gallbladder contracts, bile is ejected into the duodenum -- when the gallbladder contracts, it ejects concentrated bile into the duodenum -- bile is forced into the common bile duct when it is needed
the common bile duct is the union of the cystic duct and hepatic duct -- the hepatic duct joins the slender cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct enter the duodenum in a common duct, the hepatopancreatic
the yellow tinge in the skin symptomatic of obstructive jaundice is caused by the accumulation of what substance in the blood and tissue bilirubin -- bile pigments, bilirubin and biliverdin are products of red blood cell breakdown and are normally excreted in bile. If their excretion is prevented, they accumulate in the blood and tissues, causing a yellowish tinge to the skin and other tis
the head of the pancreas is located in the curve of the duodenum -- pancreas is an oblong, fish-shaped gland that consists of head, tail and body. The head rests in the curve of the duodenum and its tail touches the spleen. It is linked to the small intestine by a series of ducts
the sphincter at the junction of the small and large intestines is the ileocecal sphincter or valve joins the large intestine to the small intestine
the portion of the small intestine that receives secretions from the pancreas and the liver is the duodenum receives secretions from the pancreas and the liver. The duodenum originates at the pyloric sphincter and extends 10 inches, where it merges with the jejunum
the region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum is the pylorus is the region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum
the mesentery is a broad fan-shaped fold of peritoneum suspending the jejunum and the ileum from the dorsal wall of the abdomen is the mesentery
the large central portion of the stomach is called the body -- the stomach has four main regions; the cardia, fundus body and pylorus. The large central portion is the body
the muscle serving as a valve to prevent regurgitation of food from the intestine back into the stomach is known as the pyloric sphincter -- at the end of the pyloric canal, the muscular wall is thickened, forming a circular muscle called the pyloric sphincter. Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing of the pyloric sphincter, which prevents food from passing through

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